Requirement of Pain and Suffering
|Appeal Judgement - 12.06.2002||
KUNARAC et al.
(IT-96-23 & IT-96-23/1-A)
149. Torture is constituted by an act or an omission giving rise to “severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental”, but there are no more specific requirements which allow an exhaustive classification and enumeration of acts which may constitute torture. Existing case-law has not determined the absolute degree of pain required for an act to amount to torture.
150. The Appeals Chamber holds that the assumption of the Appellants that suffering must be visible, even long after the commission of the crimes in question, is erroneous. Generally speaking, some acts establish per se the suffering of those upon whom they were inflicted. Rape is obviously such an act. The Trial Chamber could only conclude that such suffering occurred even without a medical certificate. Sexual violence necessarily gives rise to severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, and in this way justifies its characterisation as an act of torture.
151. Severe pain or suffering, as required by the definition of the crime of torture, can thus be said to be established once rape has been proved, since the act of rape necessarily implies such pain or suffering. […]
 See Commission on Human Rights, Forty-eighth session, Summary Record of the 21st Meeting, 11 February 1992, Doc. E/CN.4/1992/SR.21, 21 February 1992, para 35: “Since it was clear that rape or other forms of sexual assault against women held in detention were a particularly ignominious violation of the inherent dignity and right to physical integrity of the human being, they accordingly constituted an act of torture.” Other Chambers of this Tribunal have also noted that in some circumstances rape may constitute an act of torture: Furundžija Trial Judgement, paras 163 and 171 and Čelebići Trial Judgement, paras 475-493.
 See Čelebići Trial Judgement, paras 480 and following, which quotes in this sense reports and decisions of organs of the UN and regional bodies, in particular, the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights and the European Court of Human Rights, stating that rape may be a form of torture.