Review proceedings

Notion(s) Filing Case
Review Decision - 30.06.2006 NIYITEGEKA Eliézer
(ICTR-96-14-R)

Para. 42: when the Appeals Chamber directs a subsequently assigned Defence counsel to file additional submissions to a request for review previously filed pro se by a convicted person, the said submissions shall be limited to issues raised by the convicted person in the initial pro se request. Any issue raised for the first time in the additional submissions is deemed to be out of the scope of the Appeals Chamber’s order and the merit thereof shall not be considered.

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ICTR Statute Article 25 ICTY Statute Article 26 ICTR Rule Rule 120 ICTY Rule Rule 119
Notion(s) Filing Case
Review Decision - 30.06.2006 NIYITEGEKA Eliézer
(ICTR-96-14-R)

45. The Appeals Chamber considers that the general provision of Rule 89 (C) governing admission of evidence cannot supersede the lex specialis of Article 25 of the Statute and Rule 120 of the Rules in respect of review proceedings, for which the Statute and the Rules have set a different and more restrictive standard. It thus does not apply in this case.

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ICTR Statute Article 25 ICTY Statute Article 26 ICTR Rule Rule 89(C);
Rule 120
ICTY Rule Rule 89(C);
Rule 119
Notion(s) Filing Case
Review Decision - 30.06.2006 NIYITEGEKA Eliézer
(ICTR-96-14-R)

Paras 12, 16, 21, 25, 30, 36: the Appeals Chamber after having recalled the cumulative nature of the criteria for review in para. 7, as previously set out in Josipović,[1] and having concluded that none of the alleged issues met the first criterion of “new fact” within the meaning of Article 25 of the Statute and Rule 120 of the Rules of the Tribunal, ruled that it was not obliged to examine them further. This determination conforms to previous approaches adopted by the Appeals Chamber, halting the analysis at the first criterion upon concluding that no “new fact” is presented.[2]

Nevertheless, the Appeals Chamber proceeded to consider whether, assuming the proffered material could be characterised as a “new fact”, it could have been a decisive factor in reaching the original decision.[3] The approach of the Appeals Chamber in this case, as in previous cases, was to consider the fourth criterion of “decisive factor” after finding that the first criterion is not met.[4] The Appeals Chamber adopted this approach out of an abundance of caution and not because the requirement of a “new fact” can be waived to avoid a miscarriage of justice.

[1] Prosecutor v. Drago Josipović, Case No. IT-95-16-R2, Decision on Motion for Review, 7 March 2003, para. 21.

[2] Prosecutor v Goran Jelisić, Case No. IT-95-10-R, Decision on Motion for Review, 2 May 2002, p. 3.

[3] Eliézer Niyitegeka v. The Prosecutor, Case No. ICTR-96-14-R, 30 June 2006, paras 13‑14,17‑19, 22‑23, 26‑28, 31‑32, 37‑40.

[4] See Prosecutor v. Drago Josipović, Case No. IT-95-16-R2, Decision on Motion for Review, 2 April 2004, pages 4‑5.

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ICTR Statute Article 25 ICTY Statute Article 26 ICTR Rule Rule 120 ICTY Rule Rule 119
Notion(s) Filing Case
Review Decision - 30.06.2006 NIYITEGEKA Eliézer
(ICTR-96-14-R)

Paras 47‑48: relying on Delić, Tadić and Josipović,[1] the Appeals Chamber noted that there is a fundamental distinction between the admission of additional evidence on appeal and a review based on a “new fact”. Rule 115 provides for the admission of additional evidence in appellate proceedings only, and is related to Article 24 of the Statute. Rule 120, on the other hand, pertains to review proceedings under Article 25 of the Statute and constitutes an “exceptional” procedure; it does not represent a second appeal. Further, there is a distinction in the nature of the additional material which may be considered under Rule 115 and that which may be considered during a review proceeding. The Appeals Chamber recalled that while Rule 115 accepts any relevant and credible additional evidence of an issue which has already been considered at trial, Article 25 and Rule 120 require a “new fact”, defined as “new information of an evidentiary nature of a fact that was not in issue during the trial or appeal proceedings”. The Appeals Chamber held that it will only permit review on the basis of new evidence of a fact known at trial under exceptional circumstances. The Appeals Chamber held that it is incorrect for parties to rely on the provisions of Rule 115 for the purpose of review instead of relying on Article 25 of the Statute and Rule 120 of the Rules.

Para. 42, lines 8‑10; para. 72, lines 4‑5: reinforcing the strictly exceptional nature of review proceedings, the Appeals Chamber held that it will not consider de novo arguments which were already raised by the Applicant and rejected at the appeals stage as a review proceeding is not an opportunity simply to re-litigate unsuccessful appeals.

[1] See Prosecutor v. Hazim Delić, Decision on Motion for Review, 25 April 2002, paras. 9, 11, 13; Prosecutor v. Duško Tadić, Decision on Motion for Review, Case No. IT-94-1-R, 30 July 2002, para. 25 (“Tadić, Decision on Motion for Review”); Prosecutor v. Drago Josipović, Case No. IT‑95‑16‑R2, Decision on Motion for Review, 7 March 2003, paras 18‑19.

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ICTR Statute Article 25 ICTY Statute Article 26 ICTR Rule Rule 120 ICTY Rule Rule 119
Notion(s) Filing Case
Decision on Review - 31.03.2000 BARAYAGWIZA Jean-Bosco
(ICTR-97-19-AR72)

41.     […] [I]t is clear from the Statute and the Rules[1] that, in order for a Chamber to carry out a review, it must be satisfied that four criteria have been met. There must be a new fact; this new fact must not have been known by the moving party at the time of the original proceedings; the lack of discovery of the new fact must not have been through the lack of due diligence on the part of the moving party; and it must be shown that the new fact could have been a decisive factor in reaching the original decision.

42.     The Appeals Chamber of the International Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia has highlighted the distinction, which should be made between genuinely new facts which may justify review and additional evidence of a fact [2]. In considering the application of Rule 119 of the Rules of the International Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (which mirrors Rule 120 of the Rules [of the International Tribunal for Rwanda]), the Appeals Chamber held that:

Where an applicant seeks to present a new fact which becomes known only after trial, despite the exercise of due diligence during the trial in discovering it, Rule 119 is the governing provision. In such a case, the Appellant is not seeking to admit additional evidence of a fact that was considered at trial but rather a new fact…It is for the Trial Chamber to review the Judgement and determine whether the new fact, if proved, could have been a decisive factor in reaching a decision”.[3]

Further, the Appeals Chamber stated that-

a distinction exists between a fact and evidence of that fact. The mere subsequent discovery of evidence of a fact which was known at trial is not itself a new fact within the meaning of Rule 119 of the Rules.[4]

43.     The Appeals Chamber would also point out at this stage, that although the substantive issue differed, in Prosecutor v. Dra‘en Erdemović,[5] the Appeals Chamber undertook to warn both parties that “[t]he appeal process of the International Tribunal is not designed for the purpose of allowing parties to remedy their own failings or oversights during trial or sentencing”. The Appeals Chamber confirms that it notes and adopts both this observation and the test established in Prosecutor v. Duško Tadić in consideration of the matter before it now.

44.     […] [A] “new fact” cannot be considered as failing to satisfy the criteria simply because it occurred before the trial. What is crucial is satisfaction of the criteria which the Appeals Chamber has established will apply. If a “new” fact satisfies these criteria, and could have been a decisive factor in reaching the decision, the Appeals Chamber can review the Decision.

[1] Article 25, Rules 120 and 121.

[2] Prosecutor v. Duško Tadić, Decision of Appellant’s Motion for the extension of the time-limit and admission of additional evidence, Case no, IT-94-1-A, 15th October 1998.

[3] Ibid., at 30.

[4] Ibid., at 32.

[5] Judgement, Case no IT-96-22-A, 7 October 1997 at § 15. 

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ICTR Statute Article 25 ICTY Statute Article 25 ICTR Rule Rule 120
Rule 121
ICTY Rule Rule 119
Rule 120
Notion(s) Filing Case
Decision on Review - 31.03.2000 BARAYAGWIZA Jean-Bosco
(ICTR-97-19-AR72)

49.     The Chamber considers it important to note that only a final judgement may be reviewed pursuant to Article 25 of the Statute and to Rule 120[1]. […] The Chamber would point out that a final judgement in the sense of the above-mentioned articles is one which terminates the proceedings; only such a decision may be subject to review. Clearly, the [decision sought to be reviewed] belongs to that category, since it dismissed the indictment against the Appellant and terminated the proceedings.

[1] In this respect, the Appeals Chamber does not agree with the Decision on the Alternative Request for Renewed Consideration of Delalić’s Motion for an Adjournment until 22 June or Request for Issue of Subpoenas to Individuals and Requests for Assistance to the Government of Bosnia and Herzegovina (IT-96-21-T, 22 June 1998), which suggests that interlocutory decisions can be subject to review. The Appeals Chamber confirms that the law is as stated above.

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ICTR Statute Article 25 ICTY Statute Article 25 ICTR Rule Rule 120
Rule 121
ICTY Rule Rule 119
Rule 120
Notion(s) Filing Case
Decision on Review - 31.03.2000 BARAYAGWIZA Jean-Bosco
(ICTR-97-19-AR72)

65.     In the wholly exceptional circumstances of this case, and in the face of a possible miscarriage of justice, the Chamber construes the condition laid down in Rule 120, that the fact be unknown to the moving party at the time of the proceedings before a Chamber, and not discoverable through the exercise of due diligence, as directory in nature. In adopting such a position, the Chamber has regard to the circumstance that the Statute itself does not speak to this issue.

66.     There is precedent for taking such an approach. Other reviewing courts, presented with facts which would clearly have altered an earlier decision, have felt bound by the interests of justice to take these into account, even when the usual requirements of due diligence and unavailability were not strictly satisfied. While it is not in the interests of justice that parties be encouraged to proceed in a less than diligent manner, “courts cannot close their eyes to injustice on account of the facility of abuse”[1].

[1] Berggren v Mutual Life Insurance Co., 231 Mass. at 177. The full passage reads:

“The mischief naturally flowing from retrials based upon the discovery of alleged new evidence leads to the establishment of a somewhat stringent practice against granting such motions unless upon a survey of the whole case a miscarriage of justice is likely to result if a new trial is denied. This is the fundamental test, in aid of which most if not all the rules upon the matter from time to time alluded to have been formulated. Ease in obtaining new trials would offer temptations to the securing of fresh evidence to supply former deficiencies. But courts cannot close "their eyes to injustice on account of facility of abuse’."

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ICTR Statute Article 25 ICTY Statute Article 25 ICTR Rule Rule 120
Rule 121
ICTY Rule Rule 119
Rule 120
Notion(s) Filing Case
Decision on Review and Reconsideration - 23.06.2006 NAHIMANA et al. (Media case)
(ICTR-99-52-A)

The Appeals Chamber reiterated that only a definitive judgement can be reviewed. It concluded that an interlocutory decision concerns only a specific issue and subsequently can not be considered as a definitive one.

31. Quant à la question plus générale de savoir si l’Appelant peut valablement réclamer la révision de l’Arrêt du 31 mars 2000, la Chambre d’appel réitère que seul un jugement définitif peut être révisé[1]. Or, la Chambre d’appel considère que l’Arrêt du 31 mars 2000 est une décision faisant droit à l’appel interjeté par le Procureur contre l’Arrêt du 3 novembre 1999. Ainsi que la Chambre d’appel l’a déjà affirmé[2], l’Arrêt du 31 mars 2000 n’a pas statué définitivement sur le fond ; il a uniquement modifié la réparation ordonnée par la Chambre d’appel dans son Arrêt du 3 novembre 1999[3] sans préjudice de l’examen au fond de l’affaire par la Chambre de première instance.

[1] Voir, supra, par. 21.

[2] Décision du 14 septembre 2000, p. 3, [Jean-Bosco Barayagwiza c. le Procureur, affaire n°ICTR-97-19-AR72, Décision sur la Requête en révision et/ou en réexamen, 14 septembre 2000].

[3] Arrêt du 31 mars 2000, par. 74,.

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ICTR Statute Article 25 ICTY Statute Article 26 ICTR Rule Rule 120 ICTY Rule Rule 119
Notion(s) Filing Case
Decision on Review and Reconsideration - 23.06.2006 NAHIMANA et al. (Media case)
(ICTR-99-52-A)

The Appeals Chamber clarified that, under Article 25 of the Statute and according to Rules 120-123, a party may submit an application for review if it satisfies the following conditions: a new fact has been discovered which was not known at the time of the initial proceedings and which could not been discovered earlier through the exercise of due diligence; and this new fact could have been a decisive factor in reaching the decision. The Appeals Chamber emphasized that only a definitive judgement can be reviewed under the said provisions.

20. […] Pour obtenir la révision conformément aux articles 25 du Statut et 120 à 123 du Règlement, la partie intéressée doit au préalable satisfaire quatre conditions:

1) un fait nouveau doit avoir été découvert,

2) ce fait nouveau ne doit pas avoir été connu de la partie intéressée lors de la procédure initiale,

3) la non-découverte de ce fait nouveau ne doit pas être due à un manque de diligence de la partie intéressée, et

4) le fait nouveau aurait pu être un élément décisif de la décision initiale[1].

21. La Chambre d’appel réitère en outre que « seul un jugement définitif peut être révisé en vertu des articles 25 du Statut et 120 du Règlement, et [qu’]un jugement définitif est une décision qui met fin à une procédure »[2].

23. La Chambre d’appel rappelle que la Décision du 14 septembre 2000 a rejeté la révision ainsi que le réexamen de la Requête du 28 juillet 2000 aux motifs que l’Arrêt du 31 mars 2000 n’avait pas mis fin à la procédure, que le réexamen de ladite requête ne pouvait être utilisé comme pouvoir de révision dans les cas où celle-ci n’était pas prévue et qu’il n’était pas justifié en l’espèce ; elle a dirigé l’Appelant vers la Chambre de première instance en vue de lui soumettre, le cas échéant, des faits nouveaux de nature à établir l’incompétence du Tribunal[3].

[1] Le Procureur c. Duško Tadić, affaire n°IT-94-1-R, Arrêt relatif à la demande en révision, 30 juillet 2002 (« Affaire Tadić, Décision »), par. 20.

[2] Affaire Semanza, Arrêt (Requête en révision de la décision de la Chambre d’appel du 31 mai 2000), 4 mai 2001, p. 4,

[Laurent Semanza c. le Procureur, affaire n°ICTR-97-20-A]. Voir également, le Procureur c. Imanishimwe, affaire n°ICTR-97-36-AR72, Arrêt (Requête en révision), 12 juillet 2000, p. 2 ; le Procureur c. Bagilishema, affaire n°ICTR-95-1A-A, Arrêt (Requête en demande de révision des ordonnances rendues par le Juge de la mise en état les 30 novembre et 19 décembre 2001), 6 février 2002, p. 2 ; Décision du 14 septembre 2000, p. 3 ; Arrêt du 31 mars 2000, par. 49. Voir également, affaire Tadić, Décision, par. 22 ; le Procureur c. Hazim Delić, Affaire n°IT-96-21-R-R119, Décision relative à la requête en révision, 25 avril 2002 (« Affaire Delić, Décision »), par. 8.

[3] Décision du 14 septembre 2000, p. 3.

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ICTR Statute Article 25 ICTY Statute Article 26 ICTR Rule Rule 120
Rule 121
Rule 122
Rule 123
ICTY Rule Rule 119
Rule 120
Rule 121
Rule 122
Notion(s) Filing Case
Decision on Non-Compliance with Obligation to Cooperate - 06.03.2017 NGIRABATWARE Augustin
(MICT-12-29-R)

Page 2:

CONSIDERING that, as Pre-Review Judge, I am “vested with the power to address problems arising during the review proceedings on behalf of the Appeals Chamber”, shall ensure that the proceedings are not unduly delayed, and shall take any measures related to procedural matters, including the issuing of decisions, orders, and directions with a view to preparing the case for a fair and expeditious hearing;[1]

CONSIDERING that, in order to ensure the proper preparation of this case for a fair and expeditious hearing, I find it necessary as Pre-Review Judge acting on behalf of the Appeals Chamber to initiate the procedure envisioned under Rules 8(A) and 131 of the Rules; 

[1] See Prosecutor v. Drago Josopivić, Case No. IT-95-16-R, Order Designating a Pre-Review Judge, 25 April 2002, p. 2 (emphasis added). See also Rule 135(B) of the Rules.

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MICT Rule Rule 8;
Rule 135;
Rule 146
Notion(s) Filing Case
Decision on Review - 19.06.2017 NGIRABATWARE Augustin
(MICT-12-29-R)

Page 3:

CONSIDERING that, pursuant to Rule 147 of the Rules, a hearing to consider evidence on the new fact (“Review Hearing”) will be held;

CONSIDERING that the Review Hearing will allow the parties to provide supporting and rebuttal evidence concerning the new fact and that, before setting the date and structure of the Review Hearing, it is appropriate to allow adequate time for preparation and to consider the scope of the evidence, if any, the parties wish to present;[1]

[1] Šljivančanin Review Decision [Prosecutor v. Veselin Šljivančanin, Case No. IT-95-13/1-R.1, Decision with Respect to Veselin Šljivančanin’s Application for Review, 14 July 2010], p. 4. Cf. [MICT] Rules 55 and 131 of the Rules.

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MICT Rule Rule 147
Notion(s) Filing Case
Decision on Review - 19.06.2017 NGIRABATWARE Augustin
(MICT-12-29-R)

Page 2:

FINDING, therefore, that a review of the Appeal Judgement is warranted;

NOTING that, in these circumstances, Ngirabatware is entitled to assigned counsel at the expense of the Mechanism for the purpose of assisting him in relation to the review proceedings;[1]

[1] See Ngirabatware Decision of 5 May 2016 [Prosecutor v. Augustin Ngirabatware, Case No. MICT-12-29-R, Decision on Prosecution’s Motion Regarding Protected Witnesses and Ngirabatware’s Motion for Assignment of Counsel, 5 May 2016 (confidential)], para. 20; Eliézer Niyitegeka v. The Prosecutor, Case No. MICT-12-16-R, Decision on Niyitegeka’s Request for Review and Assignment of Counsel, 13 July 2015, para. 8; Aloys Ntabakuze v. The Prosecutor, Case No. MICT-14-77-R, Decision on Ntabakuze’s Pro Se Motion for Assignment of an Investigator and Counsel in Anticipation of his Request for Review, 19 January 2015, para. 9.

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