National jurisdictions

Notion(s) Filing Case
Decision on Revocation of Referral - 04.10.2016 UWINKINDI Jean
(MICT-12-25-AR14.1)

71.     […] The Appeals Chamber reiterates that as “professional judges, members of the Rwandan judiciary benefit from a presumption of independence and impartiality”.[1] Thus, their personal impartiality must be presumed until there is proof to the contrary.[2] This presumption cannot be easily rebutted and it is for the party alleging bias to rebut it on the basis of adequate and reliable evidence.[3] In this respect, there is a high threshold to reach and the reasonable apprehension of bias must be firmly established.[4] […]

[1] Phénéas Munyarugarama v. Prosecutor, Case No. MICT-12-09-AR14, Decision on Appeal against the Referral of Phénéas Munyarugarama’s Case to Rwanda and Prosecution Motion to Strike, 5 October 2012, para. 24.

[2] See, e.g., The Prosecutor v. Yussuf Munyakazi, Case No. ICTR-97-36A-A, Judgement, 28 September 2011, para. 115; Tharcisse Renzaho v. The Prosecutor, Case No. ICTR-97-31-A, Judgement, 1 April 2011, para. 43. See also Kyprianou v. Cyprus [2005] ECHR 873, para. 119.

[3] See The Prosecutor v. Pauline Nyiramasuhuko et al., Case No. ICTR-98-42-A, Judgement, 14 December 2015, paras. 95, 405 and references cited therein; Eliézer Niyitegeka v. The Prosecutor, Case No. ICTR-96-14-A, Judgement, 9 July 2004 (“Niyitegeka Appeal Judgement”), para. 45.

[4] Niyitegeka Appeal Judgement, para. 45 and references cited therein.

Download full document